عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

A model to investigate the influence of marketing-mix efforts and corporate image on brand equity in the IT software sector

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: مدل بررسی تاثیر تلاش های آمیخته بازاریابی و تصویر شرکت های بزرگ برای ارزش ویژه برند در بخش نرم افزار IT

رشته: مدیریت بازاریابی

سال انتشار: 2015

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 5 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده انگلیسی مقاله

A model is developed to examine the relationships among marketing-mix efforts (channel performance,value-oriented price, promotion, and after-sales service), corporate image, three dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness with associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty), and market performance. The model considers three distinctive aspects of business markets. After-sales service is taken as a key marketing-mix effort. Corporate image is placed as a mediator from the marketing mix efforts to the dimensions of brand equity. Personal selling is defined as a main component of promotion. The model is tested in the context of a Korean IT software sector. The test results show that all the marketing-mix efforts positively affect the overall value of brand equity, which is a proxy of market performance, via the three dimensions of brand equity. Corporate image mediates the effect of the marketing-mix efforts on the three dimensions of brand equity.

Keywords: Brand equity, Industrial branding, Dimensions of brand equity, Marketing-mix efforts, Corporate image

مقدمه انگلیسی مقاله

A product is branded when target buyers learn about the product and, as a result, store in their memory knowledge structures of the product (Keller, 1993; Krishnan, 1996). These knowledge structures increase the value buyers obtain from the product by influencing their thinking, feeling and doing with respect to the product. Thus, the product is of more value when it is branded than unbranded, and this greater value is referred to as brand equity (Aaker, 1991, 1996; Keller, 1993). When the brand equity of a product is high enough, target buyers behave positively towards the product. For example, they pay more for the product, purchase it repeatedly, engage in favorable word-of-mouth behaviors, and so on (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 2008). In this respect, a firm can enhance its competitive position and increase financial performance by making its brand stronger.
Brand equity as sourced from the knowledge structures may be characterized by a set of dimensions. According to Aaker (1996), these dimensions include brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. Keller (2008) proposes six dimensions of brand equity, arranged in four hierarchical levels: salience in the bottom level, performance and image in the next level, judgment and feeling in the second-to-top level, and resonance in the top level.
Consumer choice is much affected by brand equity characterized as such, and thus those in consumer markets are fully aware of the need to appropriately manage brand equity (Aaker, 1991, 1996; Keller, 2008).
On the other hand, brand equity is relatively downplayed in business markets due to some distinct aspects of the business market exchange (Kotler & Pfoertsch, 2007; Webster & Keller, 2004). A relatively small number of buyers exist in business markets and then it is wasteful to invest in building up a vast coverage in, for example, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Also, a group of people with different roles (defined as initiators, users, buyers, deciders, influencers, and gatekeepers) participate in the process of purchasing industrial goods. Decision making in this process is more rational because it is group-oriented, and experts in product purchase and/or usage are involved in it. Individuals’ perceptions and feelings are less likely to affect the group-oriented decision making (Bendixen, Bukasa, & Abratt, 2004). Thus, it may be argued that brand equity plays a less important role in industrial marketing than consumer marketing (Saunders & Watt, 1979; Sinclair & Seward, 1988). Despite the argument, research indicates that brand equity is a critical competitive driver in industrial marketing, as well as in consumer marketing (Kotler & Pfoertsch, 2007; Mudambi, 2002; van Riel, Pahud de Mortanges, & Streukens, 2005; Webster & Keller, 2004).
As brand strength increases, industrial buyers become more likely to repurchase and pay a price premium (Bendixen et al., 2004; Hutton, 1997; Roberts & Merrilees, 2007; Taylor, Hunter, & Lindberg, 2007).
Higher brand reputation would lead to more assurance of the industrial product quality (Cretu & Brodie, 2007). Even in a much earlier period, for example, it was once popularly mentioned: “Purchase managers prefer IBM PCs to unbranded high value alternatives.” Furthermore, Borghini and Cova (2006) explain that brand equity is a basis for sellers’ cultivating relationships with buyers. Webster and Keller (2004) also explain that sellers with higher brand equity are more likely to develop and maintain their relationships with buyers. A strong brand helps sellers to reinforce their control over the relational exchange with buyers. For example, Intel successfully launched the “Intel Inside” campaign, which brought Intel more of such control. In sum, brand equity is instrumental to making the buyer–seller relationship stronger, and in turn this stronger relationship leads to the higher brand equity.
Cretu and Brodie (2007) reported that three brand-relevant studies were conducted prior to 1990. These three studies focus mainly on issues involving the brand-naming factor and its impact on marketing activities such as positioning and promotion. As seen in Tables 1 and 2, a literature survey reveals that a limited number of studies have been conducted since 1990 to investigate the phenomena of brand equity in business markets. Among these studies, 12 studies focus on the relationships between the dimensions of brand equity and marketingmix efforts (e.g., price and promotion) or market performance variables (e.g., profit and sales volume). They do not comprehensively consider the key variables that concern (1) the characteristics of brand equity in business market context, (2) marketing-mix efforts, and (3) market performance. In addition, none of the studies looks into the entire structural relationships among the three sorts of variables.
Instead, each study selects several variables relevant to a particular product market context, and only explores relationships among those selected variables.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی مقاله

In industrial marketing, little prior research focuses on the relationships among the marketing-mix efforts, dimensions of brand equity, and market performance. The present study tests a model to explain these relationships in the context of an IT software sector. The model considers three characteristics of industrial marketing. First, it takes after-sales service as a key marketing-mix effort. Second, it places corporate image as an intervening variable from marketing-mix efforts to the dimensions of brand equity. Third, it emphasizes the importance of personal selling in promotion. Overall, the model is confirmed to a significant degree with all the three characteristics of industrial marketing substantiated. Although the external validity of the tested model is limited because its context is confined to the IT software sector, its findings help to extend our knowledge of how brand equity relates to marketing-mix efforts and market performance in business markets.
Among the marketing-mix efforts addressed in the model, channel performance has the most impact (TE=0.393) on the overall value of brand equity, followed by promotion (TE=0.251), after-sales service (TE=0.136) and value-oriented price (TE=0.112). All the three dimensions of brand equity are found to significantly affect the overall value of brand equity. Interesting, though, perceived quality relates to brand loyalty while brand awareness with associations does not relate to perceived quality and brand loyalty. This implies that brand loyalty is not based on brand awareness with associations, and however, perceived quality has strong impact on brand loyalty. Given that product complexity and importance is high in the IT software product, it is plausible that mere familiarity or brand recall does not lead to brand loyalty.

فرضیات مقاله

H1a. Channel performance positively affects brand awareness with associations.
H1b. Channel performance positively affects perceived quality.
H1c. Channel performance positively affects brand loyalty.
H2a. The value-oriented price positively affects brand awareness with associations.
H2b. The value-oriented price negatively affects premium-quality perception.
H2c. The value-oriented price positively affects brand loyalty.
H3a. Promotion positively affects brand awareness with associations.
H3b. Promotion positively affects perceived quality.
H3c. Promotion positively affects brand loyalty.
H4a. After-sales service positively affects brand awareness with associations.
H4b. After-sales service positively affects perceived quality.
H4c. After-sales service positively affects brand loyalty.
H5a. Channel performance positively affects the corporate image.
H5b. Value-oriented price positively affects the corporate image.
H5c. Promotion positively affects the corporate image.
H5d. After-sales service positively affects the corporate image.
H6a. Good corporate image positively affects brand awareness with associations.
H6b. Good corporate image positively affects perceived quality.
H6c. Good corporate image positively affects brand loyalty.
H7a. Brand awareness with associations positively affects the overall value of brand equity.
H7b. Perceived quality positively affects the overall value of brand equity.
H7c. Brand loyalty positively affects the overall value of brand equity.
H8a. Brand awareness with associations positively affects perceived quality.
H8b. Brand awareness with associations positively affects brand loyalty.
H8c. Perceived quality positively affects brand loyalty.

مدمقاله

مدل روابط ساختاری میان تلاش های آمیخته بازاریابی مخلوط، تصویر شرکت و ارزش ویژه برند

مدل روابط ساختاری میان تلاش های آمیخته بازاریابی، تصویر شرکت و ارزش ویژه برند

(Kim & Hyun, 2011, 429)

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