عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

The role of hybrid entrepreneurship in explaining multiple job holders’ earnings structure

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: نقش کارآفرینی ترکیبی در توضیح ساختار درآمد افراد چند شغله

رشته: کارآفرینی

سال انتشار: 2017

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 5 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده مقاله

Despite the high prevalence of hybrid entrepreneurs among multiple job holders, research on hybrid entrepreneurship and multiple job holding has largely evolved independently from each other. We take a first step for a fruitful exchange between both research streams by building on hybrid entrepreneurship theories to explain why multiple job holders frequently have higher hourly earnings in their second job compared to their main job. Consistent with these entrepreneurship theories, our empirical analysis, based on the British Household Panel Survey (1991–2008), demonstrates that engaging in self-employment as second job significantly increases the probability of having higher average earnings in this second job, compared to being paid employed in both occupations. Furthermore, we explore the roles of gender and household composition in explaining multiple job holders’ earnings structure.

Keywords: Multiple job holding, Self-employment, Hybrid entrepreneurship, Earnings

مقدمه مقاله

Evidence from the European Labor Force Survey indicates that self-employment is much more prevalent among multiple job holders than among single job holders: For example, among second-job occupations in 2013, the share of self-employment amounts to 26% in France, 38% in the UK, and 56% in Italy. In contrast, the corresponding share among first-job occupations amounts to only 11% in France, 14% in the UK, and 23% in Italy (Eurostat, 2014). Despite the high prevalence of self-employment among multiple job holders, theories on self-employment are rarely acknowledged in the literature on multiple job holding and vice versa.

Empirical evidence shows that a high share of multiple job holders may have higher average earnings (averaged over hours) in their second job rather than in their main job, ranging from 25% (Kimmel and Smith Conway, 2001), over 48% (Paxson and Sicherman, 1996), to 70% (Wu et al., 2009). This phenomenon cannot be explained by theories on multiple job holding related tohours-constrained main jobs (Paxson and Sicherman, 1996). Other multiple job holding theories attempt to explain this using nonpecuniary benefits from the primary job and benefits, such as flexibility, from the portfolio of multiple jobs (Kimmel and Smith Conway, 2001). Furthermore, Wu et al. (2009) propose that multiple job holders engaging in self-employment as a second job (socalled hybrid entrepreneurs) might have higher second-job earnings; however, they neither provide a theoretical argument nor do they test this proposition empirically. Thus, none of the alternative explanations isolate the particular mechanism and, in particular with respect to the role of self-employment (Wu et al., 2009), there is no clear-cut empirical evidence explaining higher second job earnings.

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