عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

The influence of teaching methods on creative problem finding

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: تاثیر روش های تدریس در یافتن مسائل خلاقیت

رشته: مدیریت آموزشی

سال انتشار: 2017

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 9 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده مقاله

Problem finding is an important component of creativity, but research on it does not offer much guidance to teaching. The present research takes a step in that direction with two investigations. The first was a between subjects evaluation of a short term classroom teaching process, using creative Chinese problem finding (CCPF) to assess the impact. The second was a long term, mixed design of creative scientific problem finding (CSPF) as it developed in response to teaching that emphasized problem finding. Results showed that there were improvements, but different teaching methods had varied impact on students’ creative problem finding (CPF) performance. A mixed teaching method that included both lecture and inquiry based teaching was superior to the lecture based or inquiry based methods when used separately. The mixed teaching showed the strongest improvements in students’ flexibility and originality on the problem finding tasks. Finally, there was a significant interaction between teaching methods and instructional type (opened, closed) in flexibility and originality of CPF. Practical implications and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Teaching methods; Inquiry based teaching; Lecture based teaching; Creative problem finding; Opened instruction type; Closed instruction type

مقدمه مقاله

The strength of the Chinese educational system is probably that it provides students with factual knowledge. The weaknessis no doubt that it does little to teach students to think. Yuan (1999), who was previously the Deputy Director of the NormalEducation Department of Ministry of Education, said that the educational evaluation system of China was disabling studentsfrom having questions and was attempting to insure that students master everything. Education is very different in Westerncultures, including America (Kim, 2005; Kumar, Daniel, Doig, & Agamanolis, 1998; Ng, 2003; Walczyk, Griffith-Ross, Tobacyk,& Walczyk, 2006). There is more emphasis on asking questions, independent thought, and creative problem solving.Problem finding is an important component of creativity (Chand & Runco, 1993; Hu, Shi, Han, Wang, & Adey, 2010;Wakefield, 1985) and has received a great deal of attention in psychology and education. Definitions of problem finding vary.It is sometimes viewed as a kind of cognitive strategy and tied to effective learning (Graesse, 1992; Torres, 1998), but isalso viewed as reflection of cognitive development (Kelley & Sigel, 1986). In the present study, problem finding was definedas a thinking activity that utilizes existing contexts and experience to produce and express new questions. It is cognitive,meta-cognitive, and even affective.

In order to enhance the development of students’ problem finding skills, attention must be directed not only to thequantity of problems posed, but also problem diversity (Yoshioka et al., 2005), problem quality (Kalady, Elikkottil, & Das,2010), and the creative process (Hu, Adey, Shen, & Lin, 2004; Hu et al., 2010; Paletz & Peng, 2009). School experiences caninfluence problem finding as well, such as teaching methods, teachers’ knowledge, teachers’ attitudes towards questions,the classroom atmosphere, the evaluation system used and so on (Han, Hu, & Zou, 2005).Teaching methods may play the most important role in promoting students’ creativity (Hu, 2010). In traditional lecture-based teaching (LBT) there is usually a curriculum of disciplinization where each subject had relatively fixed structureand sequence, and a standard text book are used (Jayawickramarajah, 1996; Phil, 2000). The aim of LBT is to expose allstudents to identical knowledge (Finch, 1999).

Teachers using such curricula are there to provide learning objectives andassignments, lectures (Albanese & Mitchell, 1993; Cariaga-Lo, Richards, Hollingsworth, & Camp, 1996; Enarson & Cariaga-Lo, 2001). Lecturing remains a crucial component in virtually all models of teaching methods, including problem-basedteaching (Daine, Beverly & Barbara, 1989; Kusum et al., 1998). LBT is advantageous for students who have low levels ofself-awareness (Cariaga-Lo et al., 1996), because frequent examinations provide regular feedback, which can compensatefor low self-awareness.Yet there are concerns about LBT. Knowledge may be blindly memorized, and thus transfer and generalization is difficult.When students encounter new problems they are unable to adapt what they have learned, they are not flexible and willtend to rely on inappropriate strategies or rote knowledge.

Students often complain that some teachers dislike questionsregarding the topic being taught (Abdul-Ghaffar, Ken, & Usha, 1999; Diaz & Cartnal, 1999; Guilbert, 1998; McCrorie, 2001;Remmen et al., 1998; Ronchetto, Budkles, TBarath, & Perry, 1992). Also problematic is the fact that LBT may not take thevaried learners’ perspectives into account. The LBT conveys information and content while lacking sufficient developmentof critical thinking skills and problem solving (Stetzik, Deeter, Parker, & Yukech, 2015).

Not surprisingly, Inquiry-based teaching (IBT) has become more and more popular. IBT focuses on students’ critical think-ing, hands-on ability, and problem solving ability (Kitot, Ahmad, & Seman, 2010). NRC describes inquiry as ‘a multifacetedactivity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see whatis already known; . . .; and communicating results’ (Alake-Tuenter et al., 2012; NRC, 1996, p.23).

Inquiry teaching is definedas a pedagogical method combining higher order questioning with student-centered discussion and discovery of centralconcepts through laboratory activities (Damnjanovic, 1999; NRC, 1996). Some aspects of inquiry are individual efforts, butmany are not, and teachers need to experience the value and benefits of cooperative work (NRC, 1996, p.61), and designmany activities for group learning, not simply as an exercise but as collaboration essential to inquiry (NRC, 1996, p.50).Working in groups enables students to appreciate the availability of alternative solutions as proposed by their classmates.In IBT students are encouraged to not only learn the details of the knowledge, but also learn to apply them in the solution ofrelevant problems.

Thus, students can be accessed on the basis of their understanding and ability to apply knowledge, rathersimply their skill at reciting facts. There is an additional benefit: their transfer into other subjects. For example, this approachof teaching information retrieval was successfully implemented in an undergraduate module where students were assessedin a written examination and a written assignment (Jones, 2009).

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