عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

Social entrepreneurship and enterprise: International and innovation perspectives

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: کارآفرینی اجتماعی و تشکیلات اقتصادی: از منظر جهانی و مبتکرانه

رشته: مدیریت کارآفرینی

سال انتشار: 2010

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 10 صفحه

منبع: Entrepreneurship & Regional Development

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده انگلیسی مقاله

This paper provides an overview of social entrepreneurship and social enterprise, making reference to pertinent literature. Internationally the distribution of social enterprises is uneven and there are noticeable differences that reflect national differences in welfare, labour market and ideology. Essentially however social enterprises seek business solutions to social problems and in order to do so, we argue, it is necessary for social enterprises to foster innovation. The papers included in this volume present different models and theories of how this might be achieved. All the authors place emphasis on the need to develop a sound theoretical platform and raise methodological problems common to management research. Additionally, the papers raise policy issues, such as how outcomes of social enterprise are valued and prioritised in different societies. The work discussed points to how social enterprise may offer innovative solutions to help solve problems of social integration, socially dysfunctional behaviour and socio-economic development. It indicates the need for further research, especially to test further the models comparatively. Finally this body of work builds on and extends our thinking about entrepreneurship, and the need to tie it into social, cultural, civic and political agenda.
Keywords: entrepreneurship، social entrepreneurship، social enterprise، innovation، social policy، social integration، interdisciplinary approach

مقدمه انگلیسی مقاله

International attention is increasingly being given to social entrepreneurship and social enterprises. Numerous institutions, such as international organizations (e.g. World Bank), world-class universities, governments, public agencies, private corporations and entrepreneurial firms are paying attention to the phenomenon and dedicating resources to social entrepreneurship. This special issue on social entrepreneurship from international and innovation perspectives has provided due attention to this rapidly emerging area in the subject domain of entrepreneurship by soliciting the contribution of papers that encompass inter-disciplinary and crosscultural approaches.
As with any newly emerging field, one of the major concerns has been the issue of definition and conceptualization of social entrepreneurship (Christie and Honig 2006). Social entrepreneurship has been defined in various ways. A broad definition of social entrepreneurship refers to innovative activity with a social objective in either the for-profit sector, or in the corporate social entrepreneurship (usually in the form of CSR-related activities) or in the non-profit sector (Dees 1998; Dees and Anderson 2003; Austin, Stevenson, and Wei-Skillern 2006). Recently, Zahra et al. (2009, 519) have proposed a definition, which highlights innovation at the core of the process: ‘social entrepreneurship encompasses the activities and processes undertaken to discover, define and exploit opportunities in order to enhance social wealth by creating new ventures or managing existing organisations in an innovative manner’.
The central driver for social entrepreneurship is the social problem being addressed in an innovative and entrepreneurial way. Social enterprises tackle a wide range of social and environmental issues and operate in all parts of the economy with a view to social value and wealth creation (Chell 2007). The decision to form a particular form of social enterprise should depend on which format would most effectively mobilize the resources needed to address a particular social or environmental problem (Austin, Stevenson, and Wei-Skillern 2006). Social enterprise has been defined by the UK Government as ‘a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximize profit for shareholders’ (DTI 2002, 2003). This definition adds another dimension to the discussion by highlighting the underlying financial motivation of sustainability of the social enterprise. Given these aspects of social entrepreneurship as entrepreneurial activity and social enterprises as organizations in which this activity manifests itself, a broader conceptualization of social entrepreneurship, which underscores innovative, social value creating activity that can occur within or across the not-for-profit, business or government sectors (Austin, Stevenson, and Wei-Skillern 2006; Zahra et al. 2009) is adopted in developing this special issue.
It is worth noting that three interacting sets of factors have influenced the development of social enterprises internationally: demand side factors (i.e. public wanting services from social enterprises as customers); supply side factors (essentially the supply of social entrepreneurs) and contextual and institutional factors impacting on the relation between the two (Spear 2006). Drawing on a comparative research project on the social enterprise activity in 15 European countries, Borzaga and Defourny (2001) suggest three factors to explain country variations in the Europe:
(1) the level of development of the economic and social systems; (2) the characteristics of the welfare systems and of the traditional third sector and (3) the nature of the underpinning legal systems.

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