عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

Gender role stereotypes in integrated social marketing communication: Influence on attitudes towards the ad

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: کلیشه‌های جنسیت نقش در ارتباطات بازاریابی اجتماعی یکپارچه: تاثیر بر نگرش‌های نسبت به تبلیغات

رشته: مدیریت بازاریابی

سال انتشار: 2013

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 8 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده انگلیسی مقاله

This study examines the influence of stereotyped gender-role depictions on attitudes towards integrated social marketing communication (ISMC) through an application of Gender-Role Theory and the Stereotype Content Model. One hundred and seventy five participants completed surveys measuring their cognitive and affective attitudes towards four advertisements that varied in gender-role congruency (congruent/incongruent) and stereotype content (paternalistic/contemptuous).

The advertisements targeted male perpetrated partner violence (congruent/contemptuous); female perpetrated partner violence (incongruent/contemptuous); regretful sex experienced by a female (congruent/paternalistic); and regretful sex experienced by a male (incongruent/paternalistic). Findings revealed cognitive attitudes were more favorable when the gender of the depicted character and target behavior were consistent with gender-role stereotypes. Affective attitudes varied as a function of stereotype content. Participants’ affective attitudes were more favorable towards advertisements depicting paternalistic behavior compared to contemptuous behavior. The findings question the role of affective attitudes in evaluating ISMC advertisements and raise ethical questions regarding social marketing.

Keywords: Social marketing, Integrated social marketing communication, Affective and cognitive attitudes, Ethics, Gender-role stereotypes

مقدمه انگلیسی مقاله

Social marketing is a popular public health tool that employs marketing techniques with the intention of achieving socially desirable outcomes (Donovan, 2011). Social marketers target a variety of behaviors including physical exercise, immunization, breastfeeding, and healthy eating. As social marketing increases so too does the range of issues being addressed (Grier and Bryant, 2005), and, as a result, mass media advertisements promoted to the public through integrated social marketing communication (ISMC; Alden et al., 2011), have targeted behaviors that are inconsistent with predominant stereotyped beliefs of gender appropriate behavior. For example, the ‘‘One in Three Campaign’’ that ran in Australia targeted violence by women against men (One in Three Campaign); challenging widely held societal beliefs that intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominantly a male behavior.

Furthermore, the use of campaigns to target female perpetrated violence is likely to increase. Recent recommendations for improving social marketing campaigns targeting IPV included addressing a more diverse range of violent behaviors and the inclusion of females depicted as perpetrators and males as victims (Cismaru et al., 2010).

Empirical research examining public response to depictions challenging stereotyped beliefs is lacking, however, anecdotal evidence suggests that public response to these ads may be counterintuitive.

For example, in response to the ‘‘stop violence against men’’ campaign, members of the public posted numerous parody advertisements on popular social media sites (e.g., YouTube), depicting violence against men as humorous. Such humorous responses oppose the fundamental aim of social marketing by trivializing the seriousness of the problem behavior and raise ethical concerns surrounding the effectiveness of mass media ISMC advertisements.

The present empirical study examines attitudes towards ISMC targeting behaviors that are incongruent with predominant stereotyped gender-role beliefs. Specifically, we examined students’ attitudes towards ISMC targeting IPV and ISMC targeting regretful sex and for both target behaviors we portrayed two ads, one with a male protagonist and the other with a female protagonist. Past research has shown both behaviors to be prevalent and of concern amongst student samples. For instance, Robertson and Murachver (2007) found one-in-four male and female New Zealand university students had perpetrated IPV within the past year.

Furthermore, a high prevalence of IPV amongst student samples is evident across the western world. Straus (2004) reported a high incidence of IPV perpetrated by male and female students within 16 different countries, with the median number of students perpetrating IPV in one year across universities being 29%. Regretful sex is also a predominant behavior amongst university students. McGee and Kypri (2004) found 18% of males and 14.7% of female university students in New Zealand experienced regretful sex over a three month period.

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