عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: تقویت تحقیقات بازاریابی اجتماعی: بدست آوردن بینش از طریق مردم شناسی (قوم نگاری)

رشته: بازاریابی

سال انتشار: 2015

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 8 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده انگلیسی مقاله

This paper aims to challenge social marketers to extend their research repertoire beyond restrictive ‘individualised rationalities’ driving reliance on scientifically proven evidence, population data and focus groups as insight-oriented research. Social marketing, as a discipline, is constrained by using techniques aimed at (dis)proving scientific hypotheses, thus misses the mark when it comes to creating effective social change. Gaining insight into human conduct requires research tools that examine the deep ecological context of behaviour. Ethnography has the capability to generate deep culturally based insights that captures the social world through the eyes of the consumer, yet to date remains largely underutilised in social marketing. This article explores the value of ethnography as a social marketing research method enabling in-depth and meaningful engagement with the social and cultural experiences and the performative practice that is the manifestation of human existence.

Keywords: Social marketing, Research insight, Ethnography, Behaviour change, Social change, Behavioural ecology

مقدمه انگلیسی مقاله

Societies worldwide are facing an array of social issues and health problems to which governments and not-for-profit institutions aim to seek a solution. Social marketing is a social change approach increasingly used by institutions as a mechanism to effect change within the social system (Pykett et al., 2014). As a social change methodology, social marketing has underpinned a diverse range of change programmes from young women’s breast feeding (Parkinson et al., 2012); reducing arson (Peattie et al., 2012); reducing drinkdriving (Duong et al., 2015; Tapp et al., 2013); to child abuse (Hyman et al., 2014). These are all deep ‘social’ issues where behaviour change strategies must go beyond targeting the individual and incorporate a consideration of the social system in which behaviours occur.

Fundamental to the success of these social marketing programmes is the strategic integration, at programme planning level, of deep culturally based research to harness insight as to the target audience’s social reality of the phenomena under investigation.

Extending beyond embedded social research is the utility of data to generate insightful and relevant social change solutions that the target audience, as member embedded within a social system, consider appropriate and doable. Yet, the extent to which social marketing programmes integrate deep culturally based insight oriented research to fully comprehend the complexity of the target audiences’ social circumstances and their ability to change appears under-researched (for examples, see Brennan et al., 2014).

Recent commentary discussing the effectiveness of social marketing to achieve social change argues the discipline is at risk of myopia for its single focus on individual behaviour change as a measure of programme success (Lefebvre, 2012; Szmigin et al., 2011).

Reliance on individual level behavioural outputs reinforces individuals as sole regulators for their health and welfare (Crawshaw, 2012), which in turn constrains ability to consider consumers as actors operating within wider socio-cultural contexts. Critically, and in concert with Grier and Bryant (2005), we argue the overreliance on individual opinions garnered from focus groups, surveys and interviews as insight oriented research methods, the utility of population level data influencing expert driven solutions (Woolf et al., 2015) and the reliance on scientifically ‘proven’ evidence before acting (Capella et al., 2012) has led to inappropriately designed social change programmes. Non-consideration of the wider determinants impacting behaviour change positions social marketing at risk of inadvertently stigmatising individuals and cultural groups who engage in activities that are in opposition to pervasive or institutionally sanctioned solution (Gurrieri et al., 2013), such as the stigma experienced by non-breastfeeding mothers in a culture that reifies motherhood (The VOICE Group, 2010). The continual reliance on the biomedical model and individually focused market managerial approaches to socio-cultural predicaments ultimately restricts capability to develop social change opportunities that not only have wide reach, but importantly target audience relevance.

As Fry (2007, 2014) argues, it is now time to observe behaviour change and related solutions as a human experience. Taking this opportunity, this paper contributes to strengthening the social marketing research toolkit by reflecting on the utility of ethnography as a methodology for viewing the ‘social world through the eyes of the consumer’ (Bryman and Bell, 2007). In particular, we aim to inspire and motivate social marketers to infuse self-reflexivity in their assumptions and methods when planning social change programmes, and importantly shift away from the restrictive paradigm of ‘individualised rationalities’ towards more thoughtful consideration of viewing social issues within a behavioural ecology lens.

The following discussion elaborates on the term ‘insight’ as a critical phase of social marketing planning, and then discusses issues limiting social marketers’ capability to harness ‘deep’ insight of the behavioural ecology of the phenomena under consideration.We then discuss the value of ethnography to social marketing, and illustrate this value with an overview of how specific ethnographic techniques provide opportunities for social marketing practice. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss each technique indepth, but rather the objective of the paper to extend social marketers’ research toolkit to explore more about the ‘why’ of the consumer behaviour to uncover the dynamics behind the microlevel consumer’s behaviours as it occurs within their behavioural ecologies. The tools are presented with a view to adding to the social marketer’s repertoire of alternative approaches to deepen their insight into the social systems in which behaviours are embedded.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی مقاله

This paper has examined some of the key underlying assumptions within social marketing that in effect limits its potential as a social change facilitator. Our intention is to ignite discussion, raise awareness and ultimately transition social marketers towards greater reflexivity in the development of social change programmes. This is important because the prevailing individualised rationalities guiding objectives and methods of researchers, alongside policymakers, produces consequences that subtract rather than enhance capability of consumers to engage social change (Askegaard et al., 2014).

Ethnographic tools allow social marketers to examine human behaviours within the behaviour ecology in which these behaviours occur. At the very least, they permit ecological validity to be established prior to the application of experimental methods seeking to predict behaviours (Brennan et al., 2011). A social change agenda must extend beyond the individual and take into account themyriad of factors that influence the behaviour. People do not behave well in petri dishes. As such, ethnographic tools can enable nonlaboratory observations of real world situations, performances and practices that may lead to greater levels of ‘aha experiences’ on behalf of the researchers.

Insights developed using these methods are broader in scope, permit people to take risks in designing interventions and to say “if this then maybe that? or that? or perhaps that?”, instead of designing interventions where the burden of proof limits the variables to only those things that may be controlled in a laboratory-like setting. When it comes to fluid and complex social issues, some things may not stand still long enough for the researcher to codify them sufficiently to measure them. In this case ethnographic traditions allow for a much greater array of alternative responses to the social issues faced by policy makers and social marketers alike.

Importantly, ethnography is a very humanistic research approach; conducted by humans, about humans and in human settings.

Social marketing deals with designing ‘interventions’ in human behaviours that are damaging to health and well-being (in the fullest sense of that word). Reductionist thinking premised on the idea that individuals within their micro and meso settings can control the entire landscape of their lives limits the capacity to seek apposite solutions to human problems. Human insight to human problems requires an intimate knowledge of the human and the system in which the human is located. Ethnographic techniques are used to understand the complex internal dynamics of the ecosystem in which behaviours occur.

Ethnography permits greater opportunity for unknown unknowns to be uncovered. As Fig. 1 illustrates, the ambiguity of process, the vagueness of goals and the many possible outcomes lead to undirected learning about the objects, artefacts and behaviours embedded in the system where the researcher is participating in different communities, spaces and with different people each time they undertake a research process. The fluidity and ambiguity is challenging for those trained in a biomedical scientific research tradition. However, along with Yuille et al. (2015), we argue that breakthrough new ideas come from innovation and ambiguity, and there are concomitant risks involved in these fuzzy processes. There is a risk that you will not know some ‘thing’ with any certainty at the end of your research process. You will, however, certainly know something that you did not know before. These discoveries may lead to more consumer-centric, socially relevant and aligned programmes of change for social marketers.

Additionally, as with any research methods, there are no guarantees that research will lead to insight. However, ethnographic approaches produce much richer forms of data that can be viewed from many different perspectives, producing different outcomes each time. The reflexive cycle produces newunderstandings of the context, content and constituents each time it is engaged upon; thus there can be no single independent social reality, but there are many possible realities, each providing opportunities to see things differently (i.e. insightful thinking). For social marketers, this enables research outcomes to be more generative of ideas than cross sectional surveys or experiments (for example).

This is not to say that surveys are ‘bad’ things because they are not; it is more to suggest that surveys struggle to pick up the signs, symbols, indexicality or the interplay and nuances that exist within social settings when people are performing their daily lives. The lived experience has to be lived in order to be understood.

We recognise the list of ethnographic techniques presented in this paper is far from exhaustive. Our purpose in initiating discussion about research methodology in social marketing is to challenge the pervasive approach currently adopted by social marketers who readily apply discrete study findings to explain the cultural barriers and facilitators to social change.We hope that social marketers will be motivated to extend beyond taken-for-granted assumptions and consider more fully the consumer as a relational entity immersed within broader socio-cultural context that impacts behavioural outcomes. The trajectory of ethnographic thinking represents an opportunity for social marketers to explore more about the “why” of consumers’ behaviours and uncover the dynamics of social interactions behind the ‘micro-consumer’ research project (i.e. individual level).

Taking up an ethnographic approach will involve social marketers in not simply conducting a front-end research component positioned to inform the design and testing of campaign advertising and education materials, but in an ongoing inquiry that helps shape social and health solutions whilst simultaneously observing and interpreting the dynamics of human interactions.

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