عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

Reciprocal effect of tourist destinations on the strength of national tourism brands

ترجمه عنوان مقاله:  اثر متقابل مقصدهای گردشگری در قدرت برندهای گردشگری ملی

رشته: بازاریابی، مدیریت جهانگردی

سال انتشار: 2017

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 6 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: pdf

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چکیده مقاله

The assignment of a brand to a product affects consumer’s perceptions not only about the product, but also about the brand itself. The reciprocal effect of the product on its brand can be either positive or negative. Extending the concept of reciprocal effect to a new context, this study analyzed how consumer’s perceptions about tourist destinations can affect the national tourism brand. An experiment showed that destinations leading to attitudes that are more positive than the average can strengthen the national tourism brand, while destinations leading to attitudes below the average can weaken it. Brand dilution can happen even when the outcome is effective from the destination’s perspective. Because of the reciprocal effect, the determination of public policies in the destination level is usually inefficient from the country’s perspective. These results reinforce the need for national brand governance.

Keywords: Tourism marketing, Country brand, Tourism brand, Reciprocal effect

مقدمه مقاله

Brands enable products to be considered members of certain mental categories. As such, the properties of these members are judged not only directly, but also by means of inferences made from the characteristics of the category identified by the brand (Boush & Loken, 1991; Park, Milberg, & Lawson, 1991). Thus, the attitude toward a product identified by the brand is different from the attitude toward an unbranded product (Kapferer, 2008; Keller, 1993). However, assigning a brand to a product does not influence consumer’s perceptions only regarding the product itself. The assignment of the brand can affect perceptions regarding the brand itself since the image of the brand is the combination of the image of all known products that exhibit the brand’s symbols. On a twoway relationship, the assignment of brand X to product Y affects consumer’s perceptions about both product Y and brand X. The effect of the branded product on consumer’s perceptions regarding the brand itself is known as reciprocal effect (Aaker & Keller, 1990).

The reciprocal effect of a brand can be positive or negative. On the one hand, branded products can enhance the brand image, increasing its power to influence consumers positively (Kapferer, 2008; Keller & Aaker, 1992; Keller, 1993). However, branded products can also damage the brand, especially when they are associated with negative characteristics or when their images are inconsistent with the original image of the brand (Aaker, 1991; Farquhar, 1989; Keller, 1993).

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