عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

Consumer trust in e-commerce in the United States, Singapore and China

ترجمه عنوان مقاله: اعتماد مصرف کننده به تجارت الکترونیک در آمریکا، سنگاپور و چین

$$$: فقط 1000 تومان

سال انتشار: 2007

تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 17 صفحه

تعداد صفحات ترجمه مقاله: 28 صفحه

منبع: الزویر و ساینس دایرکت

نوع فایل: word

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فهرست مطالب
  • چکیده
  • مقدمه
  • مدل تحقیق و فرضیات
  • ویژگی های مورد اعتمادان (فروشندگان الکترونیکی)
  • شهرت و اندازه
  • انسجام چند کاناله
  • اطمینان سیستم
  • ویژگی های اعتماد کنندگان (مشتریان)
  • تمایل (گرایش) به اعتماد
  • پیامدهای اعتماد مشتری
  • اعتماد مشتری، طرز تلقی، و میل به خرید
  • اعتماد مشتری و درک ریسک
  • درک ریسک، طرز تلقی (طرز فکر)، و میل به خرید
  • جدول 1- معیارهای متغیرهای مدل
  • نتایج
  • ویژگی های آماری پاسخ دهندگان
  • آزمون برای مغایرت روش مشترک
  • مدل بندی معادله ساختاری (SEM)
  • تعادل اندازه گیری
  • مدل اندازه گیری
  • مدل ساختار
  • آزمون فرضیه
  • بحث
  • دلالت و نتایج
  • منابع

ترجمه چکیده مقاله

این تحقیق سوابق و پیامدهای اعتماد مصرف کننده را در آمریکا، سنگاپور و چین بررسی می کند. نتایج نشان می دهد که شهرت و اطمینان سیستم یک فروشنده اینترنتی و گرایشی طبیعی مشتری به اعتماد به طور قطعی مربوط به اعتماد مشتری می باشد. اعتماد مشتری رابطه مثبتی با طرز تلقی و رابطة منفی با ریسک مشاهده شده دارد. مفاهیم مورد بحث قرار گرفتند.

واژه های کلیدی: تجارت الکترونیک، اعتماد، ایالات متحده، سنگاپور، چین

ترجمه قسمتی از مقدمه مقاله

اعتماد نقش مهمی را در بسیاری از تعاملات اقتصادی و اجتماعی درگیر با عدم اطمینان و عدم استقلال ایفا می کند. از عدم اطمینانی که در معاملات اینترنتی وجود دارد، بسیاری از محققان بیان کرده اند که اعتماد یک عامل مهم مؤثر در افزایش موفقیت تجارت الکترونیک می باشد. مفهوم اعتماد بسیار مهم و حیاتی می باشد زیرا آن روی یک تعداد عوامل ضروری برای معاملات آنلاین اثر می گذارد، از قبیل امنیت و خصوصی بودن. هر چند تجارت الکترونیک مزایایی را برای هر دو خریدار و فروشنده فراهم می کند. ولی آن محدودیتهایی از قبیل جدایی فیزیکی مابین خریداران و فروشندگان و مابین خریداران و کالا، دارد. به منظور کاهش موانع، فروشندگان باید یک رابطه قابل اعتمادی را برای پرورش وفاداری مشتری توسعه دهند.

اعتماد مصرف کننده جنبه ای مهم از تجارت الکترونیک می باشد و شناخت سوابق و پیامدهای آن یک کمک مقدماتی برای دلایل ذیل می باشد. ابتدا، سوابق اعتماد ما را برای شناخت اهمیت نسبی عوامل مؤثر در اعتماد قادر می سازد. درک این عوامل نقش مهمی را در تدبیر کردن معیارهای مناسب جهت تسهیل اعتماد، ایفا می کند. ثانیاً نتایج اعتماد ما را به درک بهتر اهمیت اعتماد و اثر آن روی رفتار خریدار آنلاین قادر خواهد ساخت در ادبیات (مکتوبات) اعتماد سازمانی، مایر[1] و دیگران یک مدل در برگیرنده هر دو جزء اعتماد شامل اعتماد کننده و مورد اعتماد را پیشنهاد کردند. آنها ادراکات اعتماد کننده را دربارة ویژگیهای مورد اعتماد (معتمد) بررسی کردند. در مقالة تجارت الکترونیک جارنپا[2] و دیگران اینکه آیا ادارکات مشتریان فروشگاه اینترنتی در مورد شهرت و اندازه فروشگاه بر اعتماد آنها در فروشگاه تأثیر می گذارد یا خیر را بررسی نمودند.

ضمناً با اتصال به تئوری عمل منطقی، محققان همچنین پیامدهایی را که اعتماد بر طرز تلقی ها، تعابیر و رفتارهای مشتری دارد، تخمین زده اند. در یک روش مشابه، بندلی[3] و دیگران تأثیر یکپارچگی کانالها را بر وفاداری مشتریان به یک شرکت چند کاناله را بررسی کردند.

ترجمه قسمتی از نتیجه گیری مقاله

همانطوری که چند تن از محققان بحث کرده اند، مطالعات تجربی بر منبای تئوری اعتماد مشتری به خرید اینترنتی نسبتاً کم می باشد که بطور قابل توجهی مانع درک اعتماد مشتری به خرید اینترنتی می شود. تحقیق ما این کمبود را جبران می کند (این خلأ را پر می کند) و یک مدل تئوری که مربوط به اعتماد مشتری و نتایج آن در تجارت الکترونیک و آزمون عملی آن در کشورها و مقاییسه ویژگیهای مربوط به مشتریان در کشورهای امریکا، سنگاپور و چین است را ارائه می دهد. این امر کمکهای اولیه ای به ادیات اعتماد از جنبه های مختلف می نماید.

اولاً این تحقیق، تحقیقات قبلی را در مورد ویژگی های اعتماد کنندگان (مشتریان) و اعتماد شوندگان (فروشندگان تجارت الکترونیک) توسعه داده است. نتایج ما نشان داد که ویژگی های اعتماد شوندگان (مثلاً شهرت درک شده و اطمینان سیستمی یک فروشنده الکترونیک) و ویژگیهای اعتماد کنندگان (مثلاً تمایل مشتری به اعتماد) تعیین کننده های مهمی برای اتماد در کشورها می باشند. این یافته ها مدل مفهدمی مایر و سایرین را تایید می کند که بیانگر تأثیر دو طرفه اعتماد کنندگان و اعتماد شوندگان بر اعتماد می باشد. این تحقیق یکی از اولین بررسی های تجربی ویژگی های خریدار و فروشنده در زمینه تجارت الکترونیک می باشد.

چکیده انگلیسی مقاله

This study examines the antecedents and consequences of consumer trust in the United States, Singapore and China. The results show that reputation and system assurance of an Internet vendor and consumers’ propensity to trust are positively related to consumer trust. Consumers’ trust has a positive relationship with attitude and a negative relationship with perceived risk. Implications of the results are discussed.
Keywords: e-commerce, Trust, The United States, Singapore, China

مقدمه انگلیسی مقاله

Trust plays an important role in many social and economic interactions involving uncertainty and dependency. Since uncertainties exist in transactions over the Internet, many researchers have stated that trust is a critical factor influencing the successful proliferation of e-commerce [1].
The concept of trust is crucial because it affects a number of factors essential to online transactions, including security and privacy. Moreover, although e-commerce brings benefits to both vendors and customers, it also has limitations, such as the physical separation between buyers and sellers, and between buyers and merchandise. In order to reduce the barriers, vendors must develop a trustworthy relationship to foster customer loyalty.
Consumer trust is an important aspect of e-commerce, and understanding its antecedents and consequences is a prime concern for the following reasons. First, the antecedents of trust enable us to know the relative importance of factors affecting trust. Understanding these factors would play an important role in devising appropriate measures to facilitate trust. Second, the consequences of trust would enable us to better understand the importance of trust and its effect on online buying behavior.
In the organizational trust literature, Mayer et al. [2] proposed a model incoporating both a trusting party (trustor) and a party to be trusted (trustee). They discussed the trustor’s perceptions about the trustee’s characteristics. In the context of e-commerce, Jarvenpaa et al. [3] examined whether customers’ perceptions of an Internet store’s reputation and size affect their trust in the store. Meanwhile, drawing on the theory of reasoned action, researchers have also investigated the consequences that trust has on consumers’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors [3–5]. In a similar vein, Bendoly et al. [6] examined the impact of channel integration on consumers’ loyalty to a multi-channel firm.
The global nature of the Internet raises questions about the trust effects across cultures as well. Although trust may form in a variety of ways, whether and how trust is established depend on the cultural factors (e.g., societal norms, values, etc.) that guide people’s behaviors and beliefs (e.g., [7]). Based on Hofstede’s [7] four dimensions of national culture, Doney et al. [8] developed a framework of cognitive trust-building processes which illustrated the importance of culture in the development of trust. In a similar vein, Jarvenpaa and Tractinsky [4] suggested that culture might affect the antecedents of consumer trust in an Internet store. Chai and Pavlou [9] developed a crosscultural e-commerce adoption model and empirically tested it using data collected from the United States and China. They found that trust directly influences consumer attitude across cultures; i.e., trust is important for all cultures studied.
Other research has proposed a typology of trust types [10], developed a measurement scale for trust [11], emphasized the importance of system trust in business-toconsumer transactions [12], proposed trust model [13–15], integrated trust with the technology acceptance model [16,17], examined antecedents of trust [18,19], and examined the importance of social presence on trust dimensions [20].
Although trust has been examined for over 50 years, most of the research on consumer trust focuses on consumers in English-speaking countries and newly industrialized countries. For example, previous research has examined countries such as the US [21] and Australia [3].
Other studies compared the formation of consumer trust between two different countries, e.g., Yamagishi and Yamagishi [22] provided empirical evidence that Japanese citizens often report lower levels of trust compared with their American counterparts. In a similar vein, Jarvenpaa and Tractinsky [4] examined consumer trust in the US and Israel, while Gefen et al. [23] examined cultural diversity and trust in IT adoption between the United States and South Africa.
Sin et al. [24] reviewed recent cross-cultural consumer studies and found that about half of these studies involve only two cultures. However, studies that investigate only one or two cultures may have limited values compared to studies done in several cultures. The reason is that studies done in several cultures would give us a better and deeper understanding of the effects of culture on behavior [25]. Hence, we empirically examine a model of consumer trust in ecommerce vendors using data collected from three countries: the United States, Singapore and China.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی مقاله

As some researchers have argued, theory-guided empirical studies of consumer trust in Internet shopping are relatively rare, which critically impedes an understanding of consumer trust in Internet shopping [13]. Our research fills in the gap by proposing a theoretical model regarding the formation of consumer trust and the consequences of it in e-commerce, empirically testing if it holds across countries, and comparing consumer-related attributes among the US, Singapore, and China. It mainly contributes to trust literature in several aspects.
First, this study extends prior research in trust by including characteristics of both trustors (e-commerce vendors) and trustees (consumers) in the same empirical study and exploring the formation of trust in a new context. Our results show that the characteristics of the trustees (i.e., perceived reputation and system assurance of an e-commerce vendor) and the characteristic of trustors (i.e., consumers’ propensity to trust) are important determinants of trust across countries.
These findings confirm the conceptual model proposed by Mayer et al. [2], which described the effect of dyadic attributes of trustees and trustors on trust. This study is one of the first to empirically examine attributes of both vendors and consumers in e-commerce application. In addition, although some researchers have emphasized the important role that the properties of online transaction system plays on the formation of trust [40] in e-commerce, previous research has not involved investigating the effect of system assurance. Our study includes system assurance as a unique determinant of consumer trust in the model and shows that system assurance of a Web vendor has the strongest influence on consumer trust among all the antecedents of trust, which reveals a distinct difference from the antecedents of trust in the traditional marketing literature. We also propose a new construct—multi-channel integration as a characteristic of e-commerce vendors in the research model. Though the integration level of multiple communication channels of vendors has drawn researchers’ and practitioners’ attention, previous research has not involved examining its effect on consumers’ trust. Although the results of this study did not show positive relationship between multi-channel integration and consumer trust, our model could be a reasonable foundation for future research to explore the effect of multi-channel integration on trust under certain situations (e.g., purchase of expensive products/services) or in more advanced development stage of e-commerce.
Second, this study confirms that consumers’ attitude and intention to participate in e-commerce behaviors can be studied effectively using the traditional psychological theory of TRA. Specifically, the results show that consumers’ trust in e-commerce vendors and their risk perception can also be regarded as behavioral beliefs that affect consumers’ behavioral attitude. Our empirical results for the three countries are consistent with TRA, indicating its generalizability in e-commerce application.
Third, researchers have stated that in the context of Internet shopping, whether and how trust affects perceived risk is still very much an open issue [13]. However, similar to our study, a recent study by Pavlou and Gefen [63] found that trust reduces perceived risk. Our study is one of the few studies to examine both trust and risk in one theoretical model in the context of e-commerce. Moreover, the structural weights of the three samples are all over 0.5, revealing that the effect of consumer trust on mitigating risk perception is strong. Hence, this study could also be a reasonable starting point for exploring the relationship between consumer trust and risk perception in the context of e-commerce.
Fourth, for Internet vendors who want to leverage the benefits of online transactions, the study provides a number of strategies that they might deploy. Since system assurance is a unique factor in online business and is found to have a strong influence on consumers’ trust across countries, online retailers may need to stress the security and reliability of their online transaction systems. In addition, they may increase their perceived reputation through advertising and publicity. The design of the Websites should also focus on the information that conveys good reputation of the company and measures taken to protect consumers’ privacy and provide security associated with conducting transactions online. Fifth, in order to encourage consumers to conduct transactions online, vendors also need to use various strategies to build trust. For example, vendors should provide prompt delivery, better after-sales service, and more accurate product information. Vendors should also make an effort to decrease consumers’ risk perception to promote online purchase.
Although our empirical evidence does not support the relationship of consumers’ perceived size and multi-channel integration of a vendor with consumer trust, further research may need to explore the in-depth reasons. For example, the insignificant relationship between the perceived size and consumer trust of this research is inconsistent with the results of traditional marketing research. Does perceived size only influence consumer trust in traditional business? Is there any other factor that restricts the effect of perceived size on trust in e-commerce vendor (e.g., product catalog, product value, etc.)? Although multi-channel integration does not show the proposed relationship with consumer trust in this study, it is not clear if this construct has a significant effect on trust in other countries. Hence, further examination of the consumer trust model in other countries is necessary to check its generalizability. In addition, further research using a longitudinal design may give us a better understanding of the dynamics of the development of trust in e-commerce applications. An interesting finding of this study is that similar results were obtained across three cultures. This demonstrates the generalizability of the model across cultures. Future research can examine the proposition that culture does not make a difference on trust among educated people from various cultures. This proposition, though contrary to Doney et al. [8]
arguments on the importance of national culture on trust, warrants further investigation. In fact, in a study on consumer trust, Jarvenpaa and Tractinsky [4] found that trust seems to work the same in the US and Israel. Similarly, in a study of cultural diversity and trust in IT adoption, Gefen et al. [23] found that trust seems to work almost the same in both South Africa and the United States.
 

 

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